Q: Hvad er kommunikation i luften ?
Hvilke ord bruges der inde i cockpittet ?
Når de skal til at lande på banen hvad betyder zero five five five eight zero?
A: Kommunikation i luften består af flere ting. Piloterne kommunikerer internt som regel via intercom og brug af headset. Der ud over kommunikerer piloterne med passagerne via PA’en (public announcement) samt med kabinepersonalet og naturligvis med Air Traffic Control (ATC).
Det sprog piloterne taler vil sikkert for mange lyde som ren volapyk, hvilket der er flere grunde til. I luftrum med megen trafik foregår kommunikationen meget hurtigt, nærmest som en maskingeværs salve og kombineret med lokale accenter og varierende radio kvalitet – så kræver det at man har studeret ICAO standard fraselogi. Som med ethvert andet sprog, så tager det lidt tid at lære at mestre “pilot sprog” – men i modsætning til at lære et “normalt” sprog – så er fokus her på tydelig udtale og brug af ord som ikke burde kunne misforstås. Ofte tilstræbes det at kommunikationen er så kort og præcis som muligt – ligeledes så bør en transmission limiteres til max 3- 4 oplysninger for at give modparten en chance for at forstå hele beskeden første gang. Når man har fået en instruktion af ATC så bekræftes denne af piloterne som regel ved et “read back” (tilbagelæsning). Der er nøje regler for hvad der skal læses tilbage – og read back kravet har til formål at sikre en høj flyve sikkerhed.
Det officielle sprog i luftfart er engelsk men det kan også forekomme at der på frekvensen tales det lokale sprog, hvilket ikke altid er hensigtsmæssigt for andre piloter der prøver at opretholde et “billede” af hvad der foregår på frekvensen.
Jeg har fundet følgende til dig: (ref: http://flighttraining.aopa.org/students/presolo/special/atccomm.html) – eksemplerne her stammer fra FAA (USA) hvor der er enkelte variationer i forhold til de europæiske regler – men alligevel giver det dig en god idé.
You can increase how fast you hear, and improve what you understand, if you know what to expect during a transmission. ATC instructions mostly consist of numbers preceded by key words that tell you what the numbers mean. For example, “climb and maintain….” is always followed by an altitude assignment. Controllers frequently combine the three words into one—”climbandmaintain” but they’re more deliberate with the altitude assignment, such as “one-two-thousand.” An experienced pilot recognizes the word group and knows that an altitude follows.
Every ATC instruction has its key words and formats. For example, an ATC facility name and frequency always follow “Contact”—”Contact Hometown Tower on one-two-three-point-four.” And “Fly Heading” is usually followed by a three-digit compass heading—”Fly heading zero-niner-zero.” Takeoff instructions are one exception. The tower controller may tell you to “Maintain [or Fly] runway heading.” In this case, you already know the heading to fly.
Regardless of the information transmitted, there should never be a question in a pilot’s or controller’s mind that both are talking about the same thing. If you have a question, “verify” is the word you use to ensure you have the right information. For example, you say, “Verify Hometown Tower on one-two-three-point-four,” if you think you mishear the tower frequency.
You should learn to use the right words for many reasons, and safety is at the top of the list. Another is the fact that “talking the talk” means you’ll spend less time conversing with ATC and more time enjoying your flight.
ABEAM—An aircraft is “abeam” a fix, point, or object when that fix, point, or object is approximately 90 degrees to the right or left of the aircraft track. Abeam indicates a general position rather than a precise point.
ACKNOWLEDGE—Let me know that you have received my message.
BLOCKED—Phraseology used to indicate that a radio transmission has been distorted or interrupted due to multiple simultaneous radio transmissions.
CLEARED FOR TAKEOFF—ATC authorization for an aircraft to depart.
CLEARED TO LAND—ATC authorization for an aircraft to land. It is predicated on known traffic and known physical airport conditions.
EXPEDITE—Used by ATC when prompt compliance is required to avoid the development of an imminent situation.
FLY HEADING (Degrees)—Informs the pilot of the heading he should fly. The pilot may have to turn to, or continue on, a specific compass direction in order to comply with the instructions. The pilot is expected to turn in the shorter direction to the heading unless otherwise instructed by ATC.
FUEL REMAINING—A phrase used by either pilots or controllers when relating to the fuel remaining on board until actual fuel exhaustion. When transmitting such information in response to either a controller question or pilot initiated cautionary advisory to air traffic control, pilots will state the APPROXIMATE NUMBER OF MINUTES the flight can continue with the fuel remaining. All reserve fuel SHOULD BE INCLUDED in the time stated, as should an allowance for established fuel gauge system error.
GO AROUND—Instructions for a pilot to abandon his approach to landing. Additional instructions may follow. Unless otherwise advised by ATC, a VFR aircraft or an aircraft conducting visual approach should overfly the runway while climbing to traffic pattern altitude and enter the traffic pattern via the crosswind leg. A pilot on an IFR flight plan making an instrument approach should execute the published missed approach procedure or proceed as instructed by ATC; e.g., “Go around” (additional instructions if required).
HOW DO YOU READ?—A question relating to the quality of the transmission or to determine how well the transmission is being received.
IDENT—A request for a pilot to activate the aircraft transponder identification feature. This will help the controller to confirm an aircraft identity or to identify an aircraft. Do not confuse this with squawk, which means to tune the transponder code or transponder operating mode, such as Mode C, altitude reporting, a controller gives you.
IMMEDIATELY—Used by ATC when such action compliance is required to avoid an imminent situation.
MAINTAIN—Concerning altitude/flight level, the term means to remain at the altitude/flight level specified. The phrase “climb and” or “descend and” normally precedes “maintain” and the altitude assignment; e.g., “descend and maintain 5,000.” Concerning other ATC instructions, the term is used in its literal sense; e.g., maintain VFR.
MAYDAY—The international radio telephony distress signal. When repeated three times, it indicates imminent and grave danger and that immediate assistance is requested.
NEGATIVE—”No,” or “permission not granted,” or “that is not correct.”
NEGATIVE CONTACT—Used by pilots to inform ATC that the previously issued traffic is not in sight. It may be followed by the pilot’s request for the controller to provide assistance in avoiding the traffic. Used by pilots to inform ATC they were unable to contact ATC on a particular frequency.
RADAR CONTACT—Used by ATC to inform an aircraft that it is identified on the radar display and radar flight following will be provided until radar identification is terminated.
RADAR SERVICE TERMINATED—Used by ATC to inform a pilot that he will no longer be provided any of the services that could be received while in radar contact. Radar service is automatically terminated, and the pilot is not advised in the following cases: 1. An aircraft cancels its IFR flight plan, except within Class B airspace, Class C airspace, a TRSA, or where Basic Radar service is provided. 2. An aircraft conducting an instrument, visual, or contact approach has landed or has been instructed to change to advisory frequency. 3. An arriving VFR aircraft, receiving radar service to a tower controlled airport within Class B airspace, Class C airspace, a TRSA, or where sequencing service is provided, has landed; or to all other airports, is instructed to change to tower or advisory frequency. 4. An aircraft completes a radar approach.
READ BACK—Repeat my message back to me.
REPORT—Used to instruct pilots to advise ATC of specified information; e.g., “Report passing Hamilton VOR.”
SAY AGAIN—Used to request a repeat of the last transmission. Usually specifies transmission or portion thereof not understood or received; e.g., “Say again all after ABRAM VOR.”
SAY ALTITUDE/ SAY YOUR PASSING LEVEL Used by ATC to ascertain an aircraft’s specific altitude/flight level. When the aircraft is climbing or descending, the pilot should state the indicated altitude rounded to the nearest 100 feet.
SAY HEADING—Used by ATC to request an aircraft heading. The pilot should state the actual heading of the aircraft.
SQUAWK (Mode, Code, Function)—Activate specific modes/ codes/functions on the aircraft transponder, e.g., “Squawk two—one-zero-five.” Squawk does not mean pilot should press the transponder’s IDENT button.
STAND BY—Means the controller or pilot must pause for a few seconds, usually to attend to other duties of a higher priority. Also means to wait as in “stand by for clearance.” The caller should reestablish contact if a delay is lengthy. “Stand by” is not an approval or denial.
TAXI INTO POSITION AND HOLD—Used by ATC to inform a pilot to taxi onto the departure runway in takeoff position and hold. It is not authorization for takeoff. It is used when takeoff clearance cannot immediately be issued because of traffic or other reasons.
TRAFFIC—A term used by ATC to refer to one or more aircraft.
TRAFFIC IN SIGHT—Used by pilots to inform a controller that previously issued traffic is in sight.
UNABLE—Indicates inability to comply with a specific instruction, request, or clearance.
Vedr. Zero five five five eight zero – så giver den serie af tal ikke rigtig nogen mening for mig. Jeg tror at du har hørt forkert – måske er der et tal for meget. Mit første gæt ville være at du har hørt en “vind rapport”, hvilket typisk gives lige før landing. En vind rapport indeholder 5 tal. Først vindretningen angivet i grader, dernæst hastigheden… f.eks. one five zero one five… typisk bruger man også ordene degrees og knots… således bliver transmissionen one five zero degrees one five knots… hvilket betyder vinden kommer fra 150 grader med en styrke på 15 knob. Da det første du angiver er et “zero” så udelukker det en højde og hastigheds instruktion og ligeledes en ATC frekvens… der er også for mange tal til at det kan være et call sign … så jeg bliver dig svar skyldig.
På følgende link kan du høre lidt pilot snak…
På vegne af spørg piloten